HOW DID HUMAN ORIGINATE?

Where we humans come from? Everybody wants to get the answer to this fundamental question. Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors.

Here are the EARLY HOMINIDS –

8 TO 6 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and hominids

8 TO 6 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Sahelanthropus tchadenis

5.8 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Ardipithecus ramidus

4.4 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Australopithecus anamensis

4 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Australopithecus afarensis

3.5 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Kenyanthropus platyops

3 MILLION YEARS AGO:-

Australopithecus africans

THE DETAILS OF HUMAN EVOLUTION:

are a subject of continuing study and debate, but the general sequence from an apelike proconsul of 23 to 15 million years ago(far left)through hominid forms to the present- day human posture(far right) is generally accepted by scientists today.

Today only one species, Homo sapiens, exists, but over the course of human prehistory as many as 15 varieties of early human walked the Earth. Though the number of species and their relationships to one another are not settled, it seems clear that the earliest hominids-a term that describes all humans who ever lived-took their first steps in Africa. They were (and still we are) primates, descended from a grouo of apes that also gave rise to gorillas and chimpanzees. Around 4 million yeara ago, something in the environment led the first hominids to leave the trees and walk upright, marking thw official transition to human status. These early homìnids are often grouped under the name Australopiths (from the term “southern ape”) and include the genera Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and paranthropus. About 3.5 to 5 feet tall, they had apelike faces, with sloping foreheads and prominent jaws, but their canine teeth were small compared with an ape’s and their hands featured long, flexible thumbs. The most famous fossil member of these early humans is the Australopithecus afarensis known fondly as “Lucy”, whose partial skeleton was discovered in 1974. Her species, which lived in eastern Africa between 3 and 4 million yeara ago, is one leading candidate for beiñg a direct ancestor of Homi sapiens.

Australopiths died out about 1.2 million years ago. By that time, their descendants, a new kind of hominid, were already roaming Africa: The genus Homo, which came into existence roughly 2.3 to 2.5 million years ago, marked by a distint increase in brain size. By 1.9 million years ago, these humans had tall skeletons like those of today’s Homo sapiens, although their skulls still featured sloping foreheads, prominent brows, and heavy jaws.

These late species of Homo also demonstrated another similarity to modern humans: the desire to explore new lands. Starting around 1.8 million years ago, the first great wave of human migration occured when adventurous members of Homo erectus trekked out of Africa and into Europe and Asia. However, these hominids eventually died out and were not the direct ancestors of today’s humans. That honor falls to the first members of our own genus, Homo sapiens, who appeared in East Africa about 200,000 years ago.

MITOCHONDRIAL EYE AND Y CHROMOSOME ADAM

The study of human DNA has increased our knowledge of human origins and migration. Although virtually all of our DNA 8s recombined with every generation, two parts of tge genome remain mostly unshuffled. The Y chromosome is passed down virtually unchanged from father to son. DNA in the cell’s mitochondria, on the other hand, is passed down only from mothers to children. Very rarely, but at a steady rate over time, a harmless mutation will occur in the DNA. This genetic marker will be carried through subsequent generations. Genticists have traced the markers to the original pair of Homo sapiens ancestors, “Mitochondrial Eve” and “Y chromosome Adam, “two Africans who lived about 60000 and 150,000 years ago, respectively.

THE TASK OF EDUCATION BY VINOBA BHAVE MOST IMPORTANT SUMMARY AND QUESTION AND ANSWERS…

SUMMARY-: In this essay, Vinoba Bhave expresses his ideas regarding the purpose and aim of education. According to him, education should enable a student to acquire knowledge on his own, without the constant help of teachers. He stated that work and knowledge cannot be seperated and stresses the importance of practical knowledge. There should be no division between manual labour and intellectual work. True education should take us closer to nature. It should strengthen the forces of love and peace.

QUESTION & ANSWERS-:

Q1-: What according to vinoba, is not creditable for the teacher?

Ans:- Vinoba want the student to be self sufficient in the matter of acquiring knowledge. Teachers should make the student self- dependent at a particular age. He should not be spoon Feed. He must be rendered capable of gaining knowledge both by using the expereince of others. He should take guidance from others but use it in his own way. As students remain in tutelage for 12-15 years but then also they never understands the knowledge of true education and that’s what reflects no credit on the teacher, Hence not creditable for the teacher.

Q2-: What did vasistha say to Dasarath?

Ans-: When visvamitra came to king Dasarath to ask him for the services of Ramachandra and told him that he want Ram and Lakshman to protect his sacrifices. So , Dasarath didn’t agree as he thinks that Ram is too young this work; So he didn’t want to let him go but at that time vasistha explained to him that his son will get best kind of education from visvamitra and that’s what he was seeking him for that good of his education.

Q3-: For which purpose has vinoba quoted the example of a cook?

Ans-: As the example of a cook states that if someone were to come and ask us for a cook’s job saying that he could manage to bake thirty or forty good loaves of bread out of every hundred, so no one wants to employ that person because he can cook only 30-40 good loaves and the rest 60-70 would be bad and waste so, here the purpose relies that poeple who employ you see only dedication, hardwork towards your work, not the person who is just passed. So he wants to tell us 30% or 40% is not enough to acheiver something, it is just a passing of marksm It will give us the satisfaction and relief but didn’t work in our future goals. So 30 or 40% is not enough for us, we should learn and do everything fully and so people employ us by seeing our 100% hardwork and we’ll acheive our future goals.

Q4-: Why are city- dwellers unable to go into the open air for joy and blessing?

Ans-: The city- dwellers are unable to go into the open air for joy and blessing because of their lifestyle, nature and environment all in all. These people are staying in small apartments or flats, thay have no where to go ,no open spaces and no natural areas to visit as they are living in so crowdedand polluted cities. Moreover, city dwellers are so busy that they cannot see the stars at night. They have become so artificial that sometimes they get a flower pot and put paper flowers in it and hang pictures of sunrise and sunset on the walls. So artificial has become their life as they cannot know the joy of nature. Earning money is the only aim in their life and they can’t see the beauty of nature. They don’t have humanitarian quality, everything is lost in their profession, fakeness and so, they are unable to go into the open air for joy and blessing as they are missing out in their lifestyle, nature and environment and that can never give them joy and blessing.

Q5-: What does a vinoba say about the utility of the books?

Ans-: Vinoba say that books are not the primary source, it is the secondary source. He has explained this with the help of an example:- For eg:- The eyes are the prgans of sight and the spectacles are merely accessories, so eyes are the primary source of vision, but if eyes are weak than the spectacles can certainly assist them. So here, spectacles are the secodary source not the organ of sight. Similarly, books are not the primary source because we get knowledge from everywhere, not from just one source. We are learning from so many people, our elders, nature and so many different source. We are expereincing new things and situations day by day. So, it’s not just the books are the only source, we can get knowledge from our real life situations also.

LONG QUESTION AND ANSWERS:-

Q1-: ‘The question,”what shall we teach our students?” is asked in the upanishads and the answer given is that we should teach them “the veda of vedas”. What does it mean to teach them ‘the veda of vedas’?

Ans:- ‘Veda of vedas’ is the biggest knowledge of the world that means one should have knowledge about everything. So, In this, Vinoba bhave wants to say that we should not limit ourselves to just one thing infact we should have complete knowledge about everything. For instance, if we teach the vedas, we omit the Quran, we teach the Quran but omit the Dhammapada, we teach the Dhammapada, but omit the science which is wrong, infact we have to give them the veda of vedas, that is our knowledge should not be confined to just one place, we should confined our knowledge to different places and that’s how, we can be educated and conplete person. This lead to peace and unity in the country when we start understanding other poeple and understand their rituals or religions. This saves a lot of argument and annoyance between people and that is the power to study the vedas.

Q2-: ‘A boy who gets 33%of the marks is sixty- seven a failure? How does bhave prove this point in his essay?

Ans:- Vinoba Bhave wants to say that the boy’s knowledge should be hundered percent. If you get 33% that is not enough to face the world as it only gives you satisfaction and happiness that you passed but it will not give any benefit to you in future because he us 67% a failure so that,when you enter the world of jobs, you have nothing to offer to people that employ you. No body wants that person in their company who is 67% a failure and just passed as he is not able to give productivity to the company. Vinoba has explained this with the help of an example of a cook that states if someone were to come and ask us for a cook’s job saying that he could manage to bake 30 or 40 good loaves of bread out of every hundred, so no one wants to employ that person because he can cook only 30 – 40% and the rest would be saying that the person who wants to employ you will see only dedication and hardwork not just the passing marks. So, we should be 100% acheiver in our life to get success and progress.

Q3-: ‘On the completion of his education a student is ought to have that kind of confidence in his powers’. What kind of confidence does Bhave refer to here?

Ans-: Bhave refers to the confidence of hardwork, dedication and consistency towards your work and eduaction. He wants to say that on the completion of one’s education, a student ought to have the confidence of a lion that he can face the world easily without hesitating or any kind of fear. So, the man who knows everything and given his 100% will easily face the world as he have done a lot of hardwork in his life that makes him so confident and let him come out as a successful person. On the other hand, the person who don’t know anything will have no confidence, he will hesitate in facing the world as if he don’t have knowledge. So Bhave wanted the purpose of true education should be to train men to get the information which they need for themselves not just supply of miscellaneous information. Education means the attainment of self-sufficiency in learning. So, true education and knowledge about everything is very important to be self sufficient. So, whenever we have to do something good in life, we have to do hardwork, preparation that makes an individual knowledgeable and so confident. Hence, confidence come with efforts, that poeple should make to be successful person in the world.

Q4-: ‘At present, education and defence are two seperate departments of the government. But, in a non- violent society, education is itself the means of defence.’ How can education become the means of defence?

Ans-: According to vinoba eduaction is itself the meeans of defence because the better our education is, the less we have to spend on police and on the army for defence. True knowledge is a weapon before which all other weapons fail. Education ought to be able to claim that it can protect the country by the power of non-violence. Education has, therefore a social and a national goal as well as an individual goal. The goal of education for the idividual is the attainment of self- sufficiency in learning. The goal of education for tge nation, for humanity, must be freedom from fear, not only this or that country, but for the world – wide community of man amd if every individual have education and knowledge about everything, people started learning other religions and so, this can spread humanitarian value among people as they started understanding people feeling, their beleifs and rituals and keep knowledge aboit everything. This lead to peace in the country, people will understand other people’s problems, a lot of argument and annoyance, riots and violence cab be saved. Poeple can solve disputes if we understand each other and thats what true eduaction is which can be use to change the world. It is key to eliminate all the problems and violence and that’s how it become the means of defence.

Q5-: It is our duty to think out the ways and means of reaching this goal.’ What is the goal referred to here?

Ans-: The goal referree to here is the social, a national goal as well as an individual goal. The goal of education for the individual is the attainment of self-sufficiency in learning that is, he should be self- sufficient and self dependent. The goal of education for the nation , for humanity must be freedom from fear not only for this pr that country, but for the world- wide community of man. So’ it is oir duty to thibk out the ways and means of reaching this goal as it aims to make a peaceful country. According to the writer, this is the greatest task before all of us today because if we have true education and knowledge about everything then our country could be set free from violence and riots going on in the counyry and it will strengthen the forces of love and peace as we started understanding people’s problems, their pains and mindset, their beleifs, their rituals, cultures and relegions that brings peace, love, care and humanitarian quality among every individual and that’s whatmake our coutry a non violent country, so it is our duty to protect the country by the power of eduaction. People can solve disputes if we understand each other and thats what true education is and our country slowly turn into a peaceful nation.

Q6-: ‘It is based on a misunderstanding of the psychological laws’. Explain the contex of this statement?

Ans-: The study of human behaviour is known as psychology. According to vinoba, studies are based on a misunderstanding of the psychological laws because the fear that children will learn nothing if the time spent onbooks is reduced is not well founded infact it is very wrong conception. People think sitting in books for 20 hours a day is necessary but how much knowledge we gain in those 20 hours that is necessary. So, if a student is giving 20 hours to studies without gaining the knowledge or the true meaning of the topic that doesn’t mean that person is knowledgeable infact he is the most ignorant person because he failed to give quality time to his studies and gained nothing in those hours. We should give hundred percent to our studies and do it with dedication and should be able to understand the true meaning of books we are studying. So, we have to change the old psychology that we have to give more time to books and studies and have to be surrounded by books the whole time because time doesn’t matter but in that time what we are gaining that’s what matter and most oftenly, students should not treat books as a burden on themselves, they should enjoy their studies and try to make interest in books (studies) because if you have interest in anything you will prosper in that field.

Q7-: ‘Sarvodaya economics is based on two great principles’. What are these two principles?

Ans:- ‘Sarvodaya economics is based on two great principles.’ One is that the smallest possible percentage of pur population should be emplpyed in agriculture, and the largest possible percentage in other productive kinds of work. The second principle is that the life of the whole population should be closely in touch with agriculture. For instance, if a single person is cut off from the life of the fields, his life would lack completeness and to that extent, it would not be wholly satisfying. So, if human beings want to live happily in this planet, they have to be in harmony with earth or nature or we can say the main source of our existence/food that is the agriculture. Everyone needs to be in touch with the land, to be rootedin the soil, as soil is the basis of existence and though we should be connected to our soil and agriculture. Human lives are like trees, which cannot live if they are cut off from the soil which nourishes them. Therefore, everyone must have the oppurtunity to tend the soil; at the same time the business of agriculture must be carried on so efficiently that the smallest possible number of people are tied entirely to the land. These are the two principles they may seem to be mutually contradictory, but they are both parts of sarvodaya. So, as nature is giving us a lot of things, agriculture is the main source of food and existence, so we should also give some part to our mother earth. We should do some agricultural activities and should spend some time like hours or days or weeks to agriculture, planting trees. So everybody started realising how farmers work hard, how to grow crop to earn a livelihood and how important the nature, trees are, so that we would always be in touch with our soil. We should realise that if we lost connection with the soil, we will loose existence some or the other way, so we have to take care of our mother earth to live happy, healthy and satisfying life.

Q8:- ‘City dwellers cannot kniw this joy? What is the joy that city dwellers cannot know?

Ans-: the joy that city dwellers cannot know is thatto be able to go out in the open air, among the natural objects of creation. They have become so artificial that sometimes they get a flower pot and put paper flowers in it, and hang pictures of sunrise and sunset on the walls. So artificial has become their life as they cannot know the joy of nature. These poeple are staying in small appartments or flats, thay have no where to go, no open spaces and no natural areas to visit as they are living in so crowded amd polluted cities. Earning money is the only aim in their life and they are so engrossed in their profession that they cannot see the beauty of nature. Their life have become so busy and artificial that at night they cannot see the stars. They have burned up even the darkness of night, which was given to man for peace, rest and quiet thought. Wherever, one turns, there are lights, lights and lights. There is no true joy for the man whose life is cut off from tge heavens above and the world of nature around. So, they are missing out in their lifestyle, nature and environment as they are so lost in their profession and earning money that they can’t see the joy around them and so, this is the joy of nature that city dwellers cannot know.

Q9-: ‘I suggest that the best solution of this problem is to be found intimate contact with nature’. What is the problem referred to here?

Ans-: The problem referred to here is the world’s population problem that is a very serious one issue. So, vinoba suggest that the best solution of this problem is to be found in intimate contact with nature. When a man lives this natural life he gets so satisfaction from it, so much real joy, that he has no need for other and artificial pleasures. Being in nature, or even viewing scenes of nature reduces anger, fear and stress and increases pleasant feelings. Exposure to nature makes you feel better emotionally, Moreover viniba have also said that the reading of scared books, and tge company of saintly(good) men are certainly a great help towards a life of bramacharya that is self-control. No joy is to be compared with his joy of the free life. Everyone, desires to have joy of free life, this well-being and contentment. So, we have to be satisfied in whatever we have, we don’t have to be fake and artificial all the time infact we should be honest because happiness being count in open air, in behaviour, not in artificial pleasures. Happiness is to be found beneath the open sky. It is hard to find it where life is artificial and the sky is cramped. So, if you see an outreach dream, you will be very sad and upset because you will not be able to reach it,so, we have to be satisfied amd try to find happiness in what we have. If we live a true and happy life we will be very happy so, A simple life of harmony with nature is essential to the true well-being of humanity, it is the task of education to lead the way and to show us how to regain our happiness. So we have to be in contact with nature to find the real joy.

GOOD MANNERS by JC Hill MOST IMPORTANT SUMMARY, THEME AND QUESTION & ANSWERS..

About the author: John C Hill (1888-1943) is a famous British writer. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, and was eventually ordained as a priest.

Summary-:J.C Hill in ‘Good Manners’ adopts an intimate, friendly tone. The essay is a sermon on how fellow feelings can be brought back into society that seems to have been overtaken by callous, selfish principles. Hill brings home hus argument in favour of good manners by alluding to the young man’s weak physical condition, when he is suffering from influenza and how he wakes up to the awareness of the ill manners of the youth, in their treatment of the sick and aged members of society. Parents, teachers and senior members of society nurture and protect young children in their tender years. But, the youth have forgotten the need for good manners, service and consideration for others. Good manners in effect from a part of human character. Clarity of thought and its expression in speech, making allowances for the weak and mentally challenged and humility in behaviour are some points on which Hill focuses his attention on.

Theme- Here, the writer has highlighted the importance of and the need for good manners in society and human life. He think that good manners are helpful in running our social life smoothly. We should cultivate feelings of compassion for others and know our limitations as human beings. We should be aware of the need of others. Good manners are relevant to both men and society. The old and weak must be treated or helped by the young and strong. Hence, the author wants that we should avoid ego and respect the view of others that’s what make a person civilised and well mannered.

Question and answers:-

Q1. What is the significance of the story of the young man at the beginning of the essay?

Ans:- Hill’s begins the essay with a story of a young man who was strong and healthy. He is so proud of himself and had no sympathy for the old and needy people and usually make fun of other people. So one day, he fell dangerously ill and got pneumonia and when he recovered he could only move slowly and get easily tired which makes his life difficult. So there are then, he realized the problem/pain of old people who are so tired and suffering from their oldage that can never go away. So, this realisation changed his perspective about old and needy people and he start helping them as whenever he used to travel in a train or bus, he help old and tired poeple whoever is standing besides him and gave up his seat to them as he started realising the pain of old and needy people who can never have their strength bavk again. So from this, the author wants to tell us the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy, sympathy, love and care towards common people.

Q2. Why are good manners important?

Ans:- In everyone’s life good manner plays an important role always. Good manners consists lots of qualities and we should never ignore it. As JC Hill stresses on the importance of thougjtfulness and courtesy towards common people. Human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence one must try, as far as possible to behave politely and to help others as there’s only a one chance. Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations and a good mannered person is only loved by people that is why it is important in our life.

Q3:- What according to the author, is the common factor about all boys and girls?

Ans:- According to the author, one of the things all boys and girls are going to learn before very long is that they are fragile little things in a dangerous world. Our parents, teachers and all older people have had some severe blows already and we have no idea how tired they are at times. So, we have to make life easy for them as far as we can, so when it is our turn to suffer we will feel happier for having helped when we could.

Q4:- What is the difference between literal meaning and real meaning? Which one is to be considered to the author?

Ans:- Literal meaning is exactly as stated, that is read or understood without additional interpretation. Literal means whatever we see or heard we stated but real meaning is when we go through a real statement or existing in reality. It is not what we just saw and stated bt it is when we try to extract the real meaning in a given sentence. So Author JC Hill considered real meaning among the other as it is only stupid people who take remarks too literally and do not look for the real meaning in the statements people make. So we should understand people’s intentions rather than to make fun of them.

Q5:- What does the author say aboit speaking the truth? How does he support his statement?

Ans:- He says that the meaning of the statement that you want to say depends on the person who is listening to you. If he understands it in the way /sense you said, it is truth but if he fails to understand the sense it becomes false to him. In his words, Truth is never a one-sided game, it takes two to speak the truth i.e one to speak and another to hear and it would save a great deal of argument inlife if poeple paid attention to it.

LONG QUESTION & ANSWERS:-

Q1:- ‘It is not easy in company to speak frankly’. Why not?

Ans:- ‘It is not easy in company to speak frankly’ because when in a company one must watch out for certain signs in order to be labelled as a well- mannered person. They think that everyone is delighted by their company but in fact everyone, there would be exhausted and angry at their behaviour. Hence one should not do all the talking for himself, he should instead give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should always give the person a full amd patient hearing. If they do noy speak, it means they do not want us to talk too and we should also stop the conversation there and then as other person is not interested.

Q2:- ‘It takes two to speak the truth- one to speak and another to hear? What does the writer wish to convey through this remark made by thoreau?

Ans:- The writer wants to convey that truth is never a one sided game. It takes two to speak the truth- one to speak and another to hear. One cannot speak the truth by saying what one thinks is truth. We have to express truth differently for different people. This is a very important saying and it would save a great deal of argument and annoyance in life if people paid attention to it.

For example:- To some poeple ‘socialism’ means taking money from those who have money and giving it to those who have none. To other poeple, socialism means state control of industry and commerce. To others, we cannot tell a man ‘the truth about socialism’ until you know what he understands by the term. So what we say is never absolute truth, it has different meanings for different people under different situations.

Q3:-‘Now here is one of the most surprising things in life…’ What is the most surprising? Why is it so?

Ans:- ‘Here is one of the most surprising things in life’: no man really understands himself. J.C Hill advices us to understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. Many times we fail to understand ourselves. There is always a possibility of us being mistaken. People look at everything from their own perspective and we have to understand them. JC Hill sites an example- Some students were once shown a picture of a bull figjt and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull’s tongue was out. Actually the bull,s mouth was closed, but because its head was turned to the side, its ear had looked like a tongue. So, whenever we argue with somebody about a point, think that always there is always a chance of us going wrong. Hemce we should take care of what we argue and speak. If we understand this truth, alot of argument and anger could be avoided.

Q4:-“The truth is too big for any of us to understand ‘. What is the truth? How is it related to good manners?

Ans:- “The truth is too big for any of us to understand “. The truth as we see is only one truth and part of a larger truth. We should always realise that we are humble, unimportant people on this earth and try to help the world as much as we can in our short time here. It is related to Good manners as Good manners come from having sympathy with others and from understanding our own limitations. So, we have to make sure, that we should help people and show them love, kindness, care, appreciation and sympathy in this shorter period of time as far as we can rather than judging or making fun of people.

IMPORTANT LARGE ANSWERS:-

Q1:- ‘No man really understands himself ‘. Explain?

Ans:- According to JC Hill who has written this piece of prose entitled with ‘Good manner’. This is the most surprising thing in life ‘no man really understand ourselves before teasing or talking ill about others. As many times we fail to understand ourselves and start judging others and neglecting their perspectives as people look everything from their own perspective and we have to understand them rather making fun or teasing them as there is always a possibility of us being mistaken. Hill sites an example:- some students were once shown a picture of a bull fight and asked later to describe it from memory. One said, a bull’s tongue was out. Actually the bull’s mouth was closed , but because its head was turned to the side , its ear had looked like a tongue. So, whenever we argue with someone about a point, remember that there is quite a good chance that you are wrong, however confident you feel about it. Hence we should take care of what we argue and speak. If we understand this truth and our own limitations a lot of argument and anger could be avoided.

Q2:-Why does one have to express truth differently to different people? Give reasons for your answer with suitable examples from the text.

Ans:- According to the Author, ‘JC Hill’ ‘one have to express truth differently to different poeple’ as truth differs from person to person. You cannot speak the truth by saying what you think is the truth. You have to express it differently to different people. For example:- socialism might be the state control of industry and commerce to some, but to some others, it might be robbing the rich and serving the poor. So, what we think to be true need not always be true for others. To others we cannot tell a man ‘the truth about socialism’ until you know what he understands by the term. So, we should not assume that we alone know the whole truth and the other person is always wrong as there is always a possibility that we are mistaken, However, confident we are in our statement, it always has a different meaning to different people ,so, one have to express truth differently to different poeple and hence the Author wants to conver from this, that everyone has their own perspective amd point of views that we should never let them wrong and make our perspective right , infact we should understand them.

Q3:- Bring out the significance of good manners in life with hill’s views in mind.

Ans:- JC Hill “Good manners” is an adaptation from his famous book “An introduction to citizenship”. In his essay “Good manners” the famous British writer john C Hill stresses on the importance of thoughtfulness and courtesy towards common people. He also advices that human life on this planet is not permanent. Hence we must try to behanve politely and to help others as far as possible in this shorter period of time. Good manners are based on having sympathy for others and acknowledging one’s own limitations. We should never make fun of people’s opinion and their ideas, infact we have to respect their perspective before judging them. We should strive to maintain cordial relations amongst the other. The Author advices us about a lot of manner which is most important in our life. He suggested us to help every old and needy people and talks about the perfect conversations in a company that we should give equal opportunity to others to express their views and feelings. We should never say unpleasant things about someone behind their back as tge remarks usually find their way to that person with our name attached. So, we should never feel bad or make evil for anybody. Hence, we can say if someone consist these types of manner he should be a perfect civilised person. So, Good manners plays a very important role in our life.

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