SUMMARY-: In this essay, Vinoba Bhave expresses his ideas regarding the purpose and aim of education. According to him, education should enable a student to acquire knowledge on his own, without the constant help of teachers. He stated that work and knowledge cannot be seperated and stresses the importance of practical knowledge. There should be no division between manual labour and intellectual work. True education should take us closer to nature. It should strengthen the forces of love and peace.
QUESTION & ANSWERS-:
Q1-: What according to vinoba, is not creditable for the teacher?
Ans:- Vinoba want the student to be self sufficient in the matter of acquiring knowledge. Teachers should make the student self- dependent at a particular age. He should not be spoon Feed. He must be rendered capable of gaining knowledge both by using the expereince of others. He should take guidance from others but use it in his own way. As students remain in tutelage for 12-15 years but then also they never understands the knowledge of true education and that’s what reflects no credit on the teacher, Hence not creditable for the teacher.
Q2-: What did vasistha say to Dasarath?
Ans-: When visvamitra came to king Dasarath to ask him for the services of Ramachandra and told him that he want Ram and Lakshman to protect his sacrifices. So , Dasarath didn’t agree as he thinks that Ram is too young this work; So he didn’t want to let him go but at that time vasistha explained to him that his son will get best kind of education from visvamitra and that’s what he was seeking him for that good of his education.
Q3-: For which purpose has vinoba quoted the example of a cook?
Ans-: As the example of a cook states that if someone were to come and ask us for a cook’s job saying that he could manage to bake thirty or forty good loaves of bread out of every hundred, so no one wants to employ that person because he can cook only 30-40 good loaves and the rest 60-70 would be bad and waste so, here the purpose relies that poeple who employ you see only dedication, hardwork towards your work, not the person who is just passed. So he wants to tell us 30% or 40% is not enough to acheiver something, it is just a passing of marksm It will give us the satisfaction and relief but didn’t work in our future goals. So 30 or 40% is not enough for us, we should learn and do everything fully and so people employ us by seeing our 100% hardwork and we’ll acheive our future goals.
Q4-: Why are city- dwellers unable to go into the open air for joy and blessing?
Ans-: The city- dwellers are unable to go into the open air for joy and blessing because of their lifestyle, nature and environment all in all. These people are staying in small apartments or flats, thay have no where to go ,no open spaces and no natural areas to visit as they are living in so crowdedand polluted cities. Moreover, city dwellers are so busy that they cannot see the stars at night. They have become so artificial that sometimes they get a flower pot and put paper flowers in it and hang pictures of sunrise and sunset on the walls. So artificial has become their life as they cannot know the joy of nature. Earning money is the only aim in their life and they can’t see the beauty of nature. They don’t have humanitarian quality, everything is lost in their profession, fakeness and so, they are unable to go into the open air for joy and blessing as they are missing out in their lifestyle, nature and environment and that can never give them joy and blessing.
Q5-: What does a vinoba say about the utility of the books?
Ans-: Vinoba say that books are not the primary source, it is the secondary source. He has explained this with the help of an example:- For eg:- The eyes are the prgans of sight and the spectacles are merely accessories, so eyes are the primary source of vision, but if eyes are weak than the spectacles can certainly assist them. So here, spectacles are the secodary source not the organ of sight. Similarly, books are not the primary source because we get knowledge from everywhere, not from just one source. We are learning from so many people, our elders, nature and so many different source. We are expereincing new things and situations day by day. So, it’s not just the books are the only source, we can get knowledge from our real life situations also.
LONG QUESTION AND ANSWERS:-
Q1-: ‘The question,”what shall we teach our students?” is asked in the upanishads and the answer given is that we should teach them “the veda of vedas”. What does it mean to teach them ‘the veda of vedas’?
Ans:- ‘Veda of vedas’ is the biggest knowledge of the world that means one should have knowledge about everything. So, In this, Vinoba bhave wants to say that we should not limit ourselves to just one thing infact we should have complete knowledge about everything. For instance, if we teach the vedas, we omit the Quran, we teach the Quran but omit the Dhammapada, we teach the Dhammapada, but omit the science which is wrong, infact we have to give them the veda of vedas, that is our knowledge should not be confined to just one place, we should confined our knowledge to different places and that’s how, we can be educated and conplete person. This lead to peace and unity in the country when we start understanding other poeple and understand their rituals or religions. This saves a lot of argument and annoyance between people and that is the power to study the vedas.
Q2-: ‘A boy who gets 33%of the marks is sixty- seven a failure? How does bhave prove this point in his essay?
Ans:- Vinoba Bhave wants to say that the boy’s knowledge should be hundered percent. If you get 33% that is not enough to face the world as it only gives you satisfaction and happiness that you passed but it will not give any benefit to you in future because he us 67% a failure so that,when you enter the world of jobs, you have nothing to offer to people that employ you. No body wants that person in their company who is 67% a failure and just passed as he is not able to give productivity to the company. Vinoba has explained this with the help of an example of a cook that states if someone were to come and ask us for a cook’s job saying that he could manage to bake 30 or 40 good loaves of bread out of every hundred, so no one wants to employ that person because he can cook only 30 – 40% and the rest would be saying that the person who wants to employ you will see only dedication and hardwork not just the passing marks. So, we should be 100% acheiver in our life to get success and progress.
Q3-: ‘On the completion of his education a student is ought to have that kind of confidence in his powers’. What kind of confidence does Bhave refer to here?
Ans-: Bhave refers to the confidence of hardwork, dedication and consistency towards your work and eduaction. He wants to say that on the completion of one’s education, a student ought to have the confidence of a lion that he can face the world easily without hesitating or any kind of fear. So, the man who knows everything and given his 100% will easily face the world as he have done a lot of hardwork in his life that makes him so confident and let him come out as a successful person. On the other hand, the person who don’t know anything will have no confidence, he will hesitate in facing the world as if he don’t have knowledge. So Bhave wanted the purpose of true education should be to train men to get the information which they need for themselves not just supply of miscellaneous information. Education means the attainment of self-sufficiency in learning. So, true education and knowledge about everything is very important to be self sufficient. So, whenever we have to do something good in life, we have to do hardwork, preparation that makes an individual knowledgeable and so confident. Hence, confidence come with efforts, that poeple should make to be successful person in the world.
Q4-: ‘At present, education and defence are two seperate departments of the government. But, in a non- violent society, education is itself the means of defence.’ How can education become the means of defence?
Ans-: According to vinoba eduaction is itself the meeans of defence because the better our education is, the less we have to spend on police and on the army for defence. True knowledge is a weapon before which all other weapons fail. Education ought to be able to claim that it can protect the country by the power of non-violence. Education has, therefore a social and a national goal as well as an individual goal. The goal of education for the idividual is the attainment of self- sufficiency in learning. The goal of education for tge nation, for humanity, must be freedom from fear, not only this or that country, but for the world – wide community of man amd if every individual have education and knowledge about everything, people started learning other religions and so, this can spread humanitarian value among people as they started understanding people feeling, their beleifs and rituals and keep knowledge aboit everything. This lead to peace in the country, people will understand other people’s problems, a lot of argument and annoyance, riots and violence cab be saved. Poeple can solve disputes if we understand each other and thats what true eduaction is which can be use to change the world. It is key to eliminate all the problems and violence and that’s how it become the means of defence.
Q5-: It is our duty to think out the ways and means of reaching this goal.’ What is the goal referred to here?
Ans-: The goal referree to here is the social, a national goal as well as an individual goal. The goal of education for the individual is the attainment of self-sufficiency in learning that is, he should be self- sufficient and self dependent. The goal of education for the nation , for humanity must be freedom from fear not only for this pr that country, but for the world- wide community of man. So’ it is oir duty to thibk out the ways and means of reaching this goal as it aims to make a peaceful country. According to the writer, this is the greatest task before all of us today because if we have true education and knowledge about everything then our country could be set free from violence and riots going on in the counyry and it will strengthen the forces of love and peace as we started understanding people’s problems, their pains and mindset, their beleifs, their rituals, cultures and relegions that brings peace, love, care and humanitarian quality among every individual and that’s whatmake our coutry a non violent country, so it is our duty to protect the country by the power of eduaction. People can solve disputes if we understand each other and thats what true education is and our country slowly turn into a peaceful nation.
Q6-: ‘It is based on a misunderstanding of the psychological laws’. Explain the contex of this statement?
Ans-: The study of human behaviour is known as psychology. According to vinoba, studies are based on a misunderstanding of the psychological laws because the fear that children will learn nothing if the time spent onbooks is reduced is not well founded infact it is very wrong conception. People think sitting in books for 20 hours a day is necessary but how much knowledge we gain in those 20 hours that is necessary. So, if a student is giving 20 hours to studies without gaining the knowledge or the true meaning of the topic that doesn’t mean that person is knowledgeable infact he is the most ignorant person because he failed to give quality time to his studies and gained nothing in those hours. We should give hundred percent to our studies and do it with dedication and should be able to understand the true meaning of books we are studying. So, we have to change the old psychology that we have to give more time to books and studies and have to be surrounded by books the whole time because time doesn’t matter but in that time what we are gaining that’s what matter and most oftenly, students should not treat books as a burden on themselves, they should enjoy their studies and try to make interest in books (studies) because if you have interest in anything you will prosper in that field.
Q7-: ‘Sarvodaya economics is based on two great principles’. What are these two principles?
Ans:- ‘Sarvodaya economics is based on two great principles.’ One is that the smallest possible percentage of pur population should be emplpyed in agriculture, and the largest possible percentage in other productive kinds of work. The second principle is that the life of the whole population should be closely in touch with agriculture. For instance, if a single person is cut off from the life of the fields, his life would lack completeness and to that extent, it would not be wholly satisfying. So, if human beings want to live happily in this planet, they have to be in harmony with earth or nature or we can say the main source of our existence/food that is the agriculture. Everyone needs to be in touch with the land, to be rootedin the soil, as soil is the basis of existence and though we should be connected to our soil and agriculture. Human lives are like trees, which cannot live if they are cut off from the soil which nourishes them. Therefore, everyone must have the oppurtunity to tend the soil; at the same time the business of agriculture must be carried on so efficiently that the smallest possible number of people are tied entirely to the land. These are the two principles they may seem to be mutually contradictory, but they are both parts of sarvodaya. So, as nature is giving us a lot of things, agriculture is the main source of food and existence, so we should also give some part to our mother earth. We should do some agricultural activities and should spend some time like hours or days or weeks to agriculture, planting trees. So everybody started realising how farmers work hard, how to grow crop to earn a livelihood and how important the nature, trees are, so that we would always be in touch with our soil. We should realise that if we lost connection with the soil, we will loose existence some or the other way, so we have to take care of our mother earth to live happy, healthy and satisfying life.
Q8:- ‘City dwellers cannot kniw this joy? What is the joy that city dwellers cannot know?
Ans-: the joy that city dwellers cannot know is thatto be able to go out in the open air, among the natural objects of creation. They have become so artificial that sometimes they get a flower pot and put paper flowers in it, and hang pictures of sunrise and sunset on the walls. So artificial has become their life as they cannot know the joy of nature. These poeple are staying in small appartments or flats, thay have no where to go, no open spaces and no natural areas to visit as they are living in so crowded amd polluted cities. Earning money is the only aim in their life and they are so engrossed in their profession that they cannot see the beauty of nature. Their life have become so busy and artificial that at night they cannot see the stars. They have burned up even the darkness of night, which was given to man for peace, rest and quiet thought. Wherever, one turns, there are lights, lights and lights. There is no true joy for the man whose life is cut off from tge heavens above and the world of nature around. So, they are missing out in their lifestyle, nature and environment as they are so lost in their profession and earning money that they can’t see the joy around them and so, this is the joy of nature that city dwellers cannot know.
Q9-: ‘I suggest that the best solution of this problem is to be found intimate contact with nature’. What is the problem referred to here?
Ans-: The problem referred to here is the world’s population problem that is a very serious one issue. So, vinoba suggest that the best solution of this problem is to be found in intimate contact with nature. When a man lives this natural life he gets so satisfaction from it, so much real joy, that he has no need for other and artificial pleasures. Being in nature, or even viewing scenes of nature reduces anger, fear and stress and increases pleasant feelings. Exposure to nature makes you feel better emotionally, Moreover viniba have also said that the reading of scared books, and tge company of saintly(good) men are certainly a great help towards a life of bramacharya that is self-control. No joy is to be compared with his joy of the free life. Everyone, desires to have joy of free life, this well-being and contentment. So, we have to be satisfied in whatever we have, we don’t have to be fake and artificial all the time infact we should be honest because happiness being count in open air, in behaviour, not in artificial pleasures. Happiness is to be found beneath the open sky. It is hard to find it where life is artificial and the sky is cramped. So, if you see an outreach dream, you will be very sad and upset because you will not be able to reach it,so, we have to be satisfied amd try to find happiness in what we have. If we live a true and happy life we will be very happy so, A simple life of harmony with nature is essential to the true well-being of humanity, it is the task of education to lead the way and to show us how to regain our happiness. So we have to be in contact with nature to find the real joy.